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Table 2 Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random effects model (102)

From: Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

SYMPTOM No. of studies No. of Patient Sensitivity (95% CI) Variance Logit (sensitivity) Specificity (95% CI) Variance Logit (specificity)
Dysuria a 14 3407 0.80 (0.74-0.86) 0.40 0.38 (0.31-0.46) 0.33
Frequency b 13 2807 0.88 (0.83-0.92) 0.41 0.20 (0.14-0.28) 0.58
Back pain c 4 635 0.38 (0.26-0.52) 0.22 0.57 (0.40-0.73) 0.43
Fever d 7 1250 0.10 (0.04-0.21) 1.19 0.92 (0.83-0.97) 1.07
Flank pain e 6 1340 0.26 (0.19-0.35) 0.21 0.69 (0.64-0.74) 0.04
Hematuria 7 1078 0.25 (0.21-0.29) 0.01 0.85 (0.81-0.89) 0.05
Lower abdominal pain f 7 1470 0.50 (0.34-0.66) 0.75 0.50 (0.34-0.66) 0.72
Nocturia 6 1720 0.59 (0.50-0.68) 0.17 0.55 (0.49-0.61) 0.06
Urgency g 9 2298 0.67 (0.52-0.80) 0.95 0.45 (0.31-0.60) 0.79
Vaginal discharge 6 1261 0.15 (0.08-0.26) 0.65 0.77 (0.62-0.88) 0.75
  1. a Three studies reported dysuria as painful voiding (McIsaac 2002, McIsaac 2007, Medina-Bombardo 2003)
  2. b One study reported frequency as frequency/dysuria (Dans&Klaus)
  3. c One study reported back pain as 'back or groin pain' (O'Brien)
  4. d One study reported fever as pyrexia (Lawson 1973)
  5. e One study reported flank pain as loin pain (Lawson 1973)
  6. f Different definitions were used: 'Suprapubic pain' (Hummer-Pradier 2005), Suprapubic pressure' (Baerheim), 'abdominal pain' (Fahey 2003)
  7. g One study reported urgency as urgency/frequency (Hummers-Pradier 2005)