Quality assessment. Included questions from the Quadas Tool: 
1. Was the spectrum of patient's representative of the patients who will receive the test in practice? (Q1). 2. Were selection criteria clearly described? (Q2). 3. Is the reference standard likely to correctly classify the target condition? (Q3). 4. Is the time period between reference standard and index test short enough to be reasonably sure that the target condition did not change between the two tests? (Q4). 5. Did the whole sample or a random selection of the sample receive verification using a reference standard of diagnosis? (Q5). 6. Did patients receive the same reference standard regardless of their symptoms and signs? (Q6). 7. Were all signs and symptoms clearly defined? (Q7). 8. Was the execution of the urine culture described in sufficient detail to permit replication? (Q8). 9. Were signs and symptoms interpreted without knowledge of the results of urine culture? (Q9). 10. Were the results of the urine culture interpreted without knowledge of the symptoms and signs? (Q10). 11. Were uninterpretable/intermediate test results reported? (Q11). 12. Were withdrawals from the study explained? (Q12). Additional question: . 13. Were the patients selected consecutively? (Q13). 14. Were statistical tests for main outcome adequate? (Q14).