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Table 4 Factors associated with the presence of mood disorder (univariate analysis)

From: Medically unexplained pain complaints are associated with underlying unrecognized mood disorders in primary care

Variable Level N OR CI (95%) p-value
Sex Female vs Male 3076 1.51 (1.5; 1.83) <0.0001
Age (years) < 30 2720 1a   0.0920
  30-39   1.29 (0.84; 4.12)  
  40-49   1.48 (0.56; 1.93)  
  50-59   1.04 (0.73; 2.35)  
  60-69   1.31 (0.59; 1.84)  
  70-79   1.04 (0.83; 2.63)  
  ≥ 80   1.86 (0.70; 2.38)  
Pain intensity No pain (VAS ≤ 40) 3189 1a   <0.0001
  Moderate pain (VAS 41-70)   1.37 (1.11; 1.68)  
  Severe pain (VAS >70)   1.95 (1.51; 2.53)  
Duration of pain (months) > 2 years 1393 1a   0.2824
  < 6 months vs >2 years   1.21 (0.85; 1.73)  
  Between 6-12 months vs > 2 years   1.28 (0.88; 1.87)  
  Between 1-2 years vs > 2 years   0.91 (0.63; 1.31)  
NSAIDs Yes vs No 3189 0.67 (0.52; 0.86) 0.0018
Analgesic opioids Yes vs No 3189 1.07 (0.79; 1.46) 0.6600
Anticonvulsionants Yes vs No 3189 1.03 (0.62; 1.71) 0.9181
Anxiolitics Yes vs No 3189 1.56 (1.27; 1.91) <0.0001
Headache Yes vs No 3189 1.66 (1.39; 1.99) <0.0001
Neck pain Yes vs No 3189 1.70 (1.41; 2.04) <0.0001
Back pain Yes vs No 3189 1.66 (1.38; 1.99) <0.0001
Limb pain Yes vs No 3189 1.24 (1.04; 1.48) 0.0165
Joint pain Yes vs No 3189 1.52 (1.27; 1.81) <0.0001
Identification of the cause of pain No vs Yes 3011 1.72 (1.44; 2.06) <0.0001
Pain duration in the last week (percentage of the day in pain)   3189 1.02 (1.01; 1.02) <0.0001
Number of pain sites 1 2959 1a   <0.0001
  2   1.21 (0.87;1.67)  
  3   1.71 (1.23; 2.36)  
  4   1.91 (1.36;2.68)  
  5   2.54 (1.86;3.47)  
  1. a reference category